Traveling the desert does automatically mean that one is confronted somehow with navigation. I will present some instruments, documents and maps here which were (or are) mainly used for navigation in the desert:

Astro Compass Mk.II

The Astro Compass Mk.II was installed in american bomber airplanes during WWII. Although there is some information in the internet telling that it was used by B.24 crews over the North African desert, I rather believe that they did just not remove the instrument after the aircraft had crossed the Atlantic on the northern route. In fact the compass was foreseen to navigate in zones where the magntic compass would not work properly anymore – as the Artcic.