Traveling the desert does automatically mean that one is confronted somehow with navigation. I will present some instruments, documents and maps here which were (or are) mainly used for navigation in the desert:

Air Navigation - Simply Explained

C. Plath, Hamburg, manufactured this Dreiecksrechner for the German Luftwaffe in 1941.

Bagnold Sun-Compass

A unique little instrument which was only used in very limited numbers by Ralph A. Bagnold and his Long Range Desert Group and some other “special forces units” in the Desert Campaign of WWII. Shown on the photos is not an original but a replica of this sun-compass.

Middle East Training Pamphlet No. 9

Middle East Training Pamphletes were developped, printed and distributed by GHQ ME to the British Forces. I am not sure if this was only done during WWII or also before and after. Here we have No.9, Part IV, Field Navigation / Astro-Fix.